How Do Cells Heal?
Cells, as explained previously, have the power to differentiate into any cell type, all the way from: bone cells to brain cells, heart cells, nerve cells, kidney cells, etc. This is what defines Cells. However, the potency to differentiate into any body cell type is not what defines their healing powers, as not all cell types are able to transform into any cell type. Only a select few, such as Bone Marrow (BMC) and Mesenchymal Cells (MSCs), have been identified to differentiate into most cells type and have been successfully used in medicine to treat diseases. They have been shown to hold several major therapeutic effects, such as:
- Down-regulation of immune processes and inflammation
- Suppression of apoptosis (“programmed cell death”, i.e. the suicide of cells)
- Activation of resident cells – up-regulate progenitor cell mobilization
- Induce angiogenesis (development of new blood vessels) – leading to better blood supply
- Promote neurogenesis (development of new nervous tissue)
After initial damage to tissues or organs, such as mechanical forces in trauma or the lack of blood supply in strokes and heart attacks, further damage is caused by immune processes and inflammation. Sub critically injured cells, which are usually found in the vicinity of the damaged tissue or organ, primarily commit suicide instead of repairing themselves. This process further increases the damaged tissue volume. To repair this damage, which is (potentially) possible in most organs by the specific cells residing in them, is very slow or does not happen at all without external stimulation. In such cases, cells therapies have been demonstrated to be extremely effective in stimulating repair and limiting further damage.